Čapljina

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Čapljina

Чапљина
Grad Čapljina
City of Čapljina
Panoramic view of Čapljina
Čapljina
Flag of Čapljina
Flag
Coat of arms of Čapljina
Coat of arms
Location of Čapljina within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Location of Čapljina within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 43°06′42.58″N 17°42′19.74″E / 43.1118278°N 17.7054833°E / 43.1118278; 17.7054833Coordinates: 43°06′42.58″N 17°42′19.74″E / 43.1118278°N 17.7054833°E / 43.1118278; 17.7054833
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
EntityFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Canton Herzegovina-Neretva
Geographical regionHerzegovina
Government
 • MayorSmiljan Vidić (HDZ BiH)
Area
 • City256 km2 (99 sq mi)
 • Land256 km2 (99 sq mi)
 • Water0 km2 (0 sq mi)
Population
 (2013)
 • City28,122
 • Density110/km2 (280/sq mi)
 • Urban
6,340
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Post code
88300
Area code+387 036
Websitewww.capljina.ba

Čapljina (Cyrillic: Чапљина, pronounced [t͡ʃâpʎina]) is a city located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located on the border with Croatia a mere 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the Adriatic Sea.

The river Neretva flows through the city and flows into the Adriatic just over the border. The town's landmark is a statue of King Tomislav. The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi is also a prominent facet of the city. The city coat of arms contains the Croatian checkerboard, the nearby tower in Počitelj, and Saint Francis of Assisi.

The city has a rich archaeological history and untouched wilderness and is starting to develop agricultural tourism. It is also home to Hutovo Blato Park, which contains one of the most diverse bird populations in all Europe. The Croatian town of Metković is located just over the border and there are significant commercial and other links between the two towns new Čapljina International Speedway.

History[edit]

Not much is known about this city but it was founded by Romans in 5 BC. However, ancient Greek, and later Roman maps clearly show that the area was populated by several native Illyrian peoples, including the Ardiaei, whom the ancient geographer Strabo lists as one of the three strongest Illyrian peoples – the other two being the Autariatae and the Dardani.[1]

Čapljina is situated in the wider Neretva valley region (the original homeland of ancient Illyrian people of Ardiaei), and its name derives from čaplja which means 'heron'. The Latin word for heron is ardea, a word that bears striking similarity with the name of Ardiaei, and it might possibly be its cognate. This theory opens up many possibilities for the interpretation of the original homeland of the Ardiaei and the etymology of their name. For example, heron might have had totemic pagan value among local Illyrians, due to its presence in this area, and it is not implausible to conclude that one of those Illyrian peoples named itself after a heron, the Ardiaei.

The Latin word ardea might be a Latin translation of some original Illyrian word for 'heron' that Romans found when they settled in this area, or the 'ardea' itself, could have been an Illyrian word taken by Romans, who might have slightly altered it and integrated it into their language, the Latin. Indeed, the word Ardiaei is found in ancient Greek sources predating the arrival of Romans and their language to the Illyrian lands. It is also possible that ancient Illyrians or Romans named this place 'the place of heron(s), and the Slavic settlers, who settled in the former Illyrian lands around 6th century A.D. translated the name of this place into their language(s), which in turn gave 'Čapljina', "the place of heron(s)".[2]

The Prebilovci massacre, in which around 4,000 people (mainly Serbs) were killed total, including 300 villagers from the Prebilovci thrown into a pit, is one of the most significant atrocities in this area during the Genocide of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia. Out of about 700 villagers from Prebilovci, fewer than 200 survived.[citation needed] As a revenge, In 1942, the Serbian royalist Chetniks attacked several villages in the Čapljina area. The village of Hotanj was burned, and many Croat and Bosniak civilians were killed.[3] The massacres were a part of the Chetnik genocidal campaign against non-Serbs.[4]

Since World War II it has been an important road and rail transportation link, connecting the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina with the port of Ploče in Croatia. During the 1992–1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina the city was taken over by the Croatian Defence Council, which expelled the non-Croat population and set up concentration camps for Bosniaks at Gabela camp.[5]

During the summer of 2007 wildfires caused extensive damage throughout the rural part of the municipality.[6] The officials of Čapljina, Stolac, Čitluk and Neum declared the state of natural disaster on their territories.[7]

In May 2019, the former Municipality of Čapljina got the status of an 'official city'.[8]

Settlements[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Population of settlements – Čapljina municipality
Settlement 1948. 1953. 1961. 1971. 1981. 1991. 2013.
Total 22,086 24,364 25,543 28,240 26,032 27,882 28,122
1 Bivolje Brdo 841 1,026
2 Čapljina 4,647 6,191 7,461 6,340
3 Čeljevo 1,058 1,256
4 Doljani 365 495
5 Domanovići 1,270 1,493
6 Dračevo 630 556
7 Dretelj 576 569
8 Gabela 2,440 2,315
9 Gnjilišta 345 315
10 Gorica 456 442
11 Grabovina 947 960
12 Hotanj 275 451
13 Lokve 587 861
14 Opličići 1,386 1,268
15 Počitelj 905 799
16 Prćavci 260 255
17 Ševaš Njive 262 243
18 Struge 437 433
19 Šurmanci 403 301
20 Svitava 319 239
21 Tasovčići 1,675 1,950
22 Trebižat 1,399 1,272
23 Višići 1,788 1,765
24 Zvirovići 440 373

Ethnic composition[edit]

Ethnic composition – Čapljina town
2013. 1991. 1981. 1971.
Total 6,340 (100,0%) 7,461 (100,0%) 6,191 (100,0%) 4,647 (100,0%)
Croats 4,724 (81,82%) 3,067 (41,11%) 2,542 (41,06%) 1,854 (39,90%)
Bosniaks 687 (11,90%) 2,191 (29,37%) 1,661 (26,83%) 1,605 (34,54%)
Others 187 (3,239%) 229 (3,069%) 46 (0,743%) 40 (0,861%)
Serbs 176 (3,048%) 1 267 (16,98%) 896 (14,47%) 945 (20,34%)
Yugoslavs 707 (9,476%) 955 (15,43%) 125 (2,690%)
Albanians 35 (0,565%) 20 (0,430%)
Montenegrins 31 (0,501%) 36 (0,775%)
Macedonians 16 (0,258%) 11 (0,237%)
Slovenes 9 (0,145%) 11 (0,237%)
Ethnic composition – Čapljina municipality
2013. 1991. 1981. 1971. 1961. 1953. 1948.
Total 28,122 (100,0%) 27,882 (100,0%) 26,032 (100,0%) 28,240 (100,0%) 25,543 (100,0%) 24,364 (100,0%) 22,086 (100,0%)
Croats 20,538 (78,52%) 14,969 (53,69%) 13,931 (53,51%) 16,884 (59,79%) 15,444 (60,46%) 17,072 (70,07%) 15,699 (71,08%)
Bosniaks 4,541 (17,36%) 7,672 (27,52%) 6,830 (26,24%) 6,999 (24,78%) 5,630 (22,04%)
Serbs 714 (2,730%) 3,753 (13,46%) 3,467 (13,32%) 3,896 (13,80%) 4,076 (15,96%) 3,355 (13,77%) 2,670 (12,09%)
Others 364 (1,392%) 441 (1,582%) 87 (0,334%) 113 (0,400%) 393 (1,54%) 3,937 (16,16%) 3,717 (16,83%)
Yugoslavs 1 047 (3,755%) 1 591 (6,112%) 206 (0,729%)
Montenegrins 49 (0,188%) 79 (0,280%)
Albanians 42 (0,161%) 25 (0,089%)
Macedonians 23 (0,088%) 16 (0,057%)
Slovenes 12 (0,046%) 18 (0,064%)
Roma 4 (0,014%)
Ethnic composition (1991) – Čapljina municipality by settlements
Settlement Total Croats Muslims Serbs Yugoslavs Others
total 27,882 14,969 7,672 3,753 1,047 441
1 Bajovci 181 176 5 0 0 0
2 Bivolje Brdo 841 256 562 4 6 13
3 Crnići 50 50 0 0 0 0
4 Čapljina 7,461 3,067 2,191 1,267 707 229
5 Čeljevo 1,058 827 194 1 8 28
6 Doljani 365 357 0 5 0 3
7 Domanovići 1,270 326 727 186 21 10
8 Dračevo 630 582 0 41 0 7
9 Dretelj 576 508 53 3 11 1
10 Dubravica 7 1 3 3 0 0
11 Gabela 2,440 2,046 32 324 24 14
12 Gnjilišta 345 338 1 0 0 6
13 Gorica 456 380 65 1 4 6
14 Grabovina 947 817 29 57 29 15
15 Hotanj 275 178 93 0 4 0
16 Jasenica 165 1 157 0 0 7
17 Klepci 417 14 0 383 13 7
18 Lokve 587 0 395 192 0 0
19 Opličići 1,386 108 916 357 0 5
20 Počitelj 905 172 660 20 36 17
21 Prćavci 260 260 0 0 0 0
22 Prebilovci 174 1 0 171 0 2
23 Sjekose 169 146 10 12 0 1
24 Stanojevići 194 31 163 0 0 0
25 Struge 437 284 130 2 16 5
26 Svitava 319 317 0 0 0 2
27 Ševaš Njive 262 69 191 0 2 0
28 Šurmanci 403 354 47 0 2 0
29 Tasovčići 1,675 294 511 698 138 34
30 Trebižat 1,399 1,371 9 1 11 7
31 Višići 1,788 1,207 528 23 15 15
32 Zvirovići 440 431 0 2 0 7

Culture[edit]

In the Čapljina area, cultural associations include the following:

  • HKUD Čapljina
  • HKUD Sveti Ante (Dretelj)
  • HKUD Seljačka Sloga (Trebižat)
  • HKUD "Zora" Struge-Gorica

Notable residents[edit]

Sports[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Čapljina is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Strabo, Geography, Book 7, chapter 5". www.perseus.tufts.edu.
  2. ^ Axhanela, Ardian Adžanela Adzanela. "Cultural Treasure of Bosnia and Herzegovina edition-Prehistoric and Ancient Period- Book 2- Illyrian Bosnia and Herzegovina-an Overview of a Cultural Legacy/ Ancient Illyrians of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Dizdar, Zdravko; Sobolevski, Mihajlo (1999). Prešućivani četnički zločini u Hrvatskoj i u Bosni i Hercegovini 1941–1945 [Suppressed Chetnik Crimes in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina 1941–1945]. Zagreb: Croatian Institute of History. p. 132. ISBN 978-953-6491-28-5.
  4. ^ Hoare, Marko Attila (2011). "The Partisans and the Serbs". In Ramet, Sabrina P.; Listhaug, Ola (eds.). Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-23034-781-6.
  5. ^ Predmet Prlic i drugi (IT-04-74) - Optuznica, UN.org; accessed 16 April 2018.
  6. ^ https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/bih/vise-pozara-oko-capljine/070701036
  7. ^ http://www.fbihvlada.gov.ba/hrvatski/sjednica.php?sjed_id=41&col=sjed_onasa
  8. ^ Ašćerić, Selma (23 May 2019). "Općina Čapljina i službeno postala Grad Čapljina" [Municipality of Čapljina officially became the City of Čapljina]. Istinomjer. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Gradovi prijatelji". koprivnica.hr (in Croatian). Koprivnica. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  10. ^ "Čapljina i Požega potpisali sporazum o bratimljenju". hms.ba (in Bosnian). Hrvatski Medijski Servis. 2019-03-13. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  11. ^ "Pobratene občine". vrhnika.si (in Slovenian). Občina Vrhnika. Retrieved 2020-12-28.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Konačni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 15. marta 1948. godine (in Serbo-Croatian). 9. Belgrade: Savezni zavod za statistiku i evidenciju. 1955.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva SFR Jugoslavije: podaci po naseljima i opštinama (in Serbo-Croatian). 1. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1991.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva SFR Jugoslavije: podaci po naseljima i opštinama (in Serbo-Croatian). 2. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1994.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva SFR Jugoslavije: podaci po naseljima i opštinama (in Serbo-Croatian). 3. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1994.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva: rezultati za Republiku po opštinama i naseljenim mjestima 1991 (in Serbo-Croatian). Sarajevo: State Bureau for Statistics of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1994.
  • Popis stanovništva 1953 (in Serbo-Croatian). 11. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1960.

External links[edit]